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Marrakech (Arabic: Mûrrakûsh,) known as the Pearl of the South or South Gate and City or City Red Ochre is a city in Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains.
The city was founded in 1062 by Youssef Ibn Tachfin, first king of the dynasty of the Almoravids. In the past, Morocco? Silent in the East known as the Marrakech (name still NEWS? In Iran), the name Morocco itself comes from the deformation of the Spanish pronunciation of Marrakech Marruecos.
Marrakech has about 903,589 inhabitants (2009 census) spread over an area of ​​6.2 km ². The population density reaches 350 inhabitants per hectare. This is the fourth largest city in Morocco after Casablanca, Rabat and Fez. The city is divided into two distinct parts: the Medina and historic town (ten kilometers speaker) and the new city whose neighborhoods are called major: Guéliz and Hivernage. The Guéliz is now the downtown mall. It was founded by the French during the Protectorate. The Hivernage focus of many resorts. In recent years, the town expanded in the periphery including the West with the emergence of new residential areas as the region of Targa or extension of the Avenue Mohammed VI.
In their book, Philip and Saharoff Narjess Ghachem-Benbirane address the history of the imperial city of Marrakech was the capital of each of the various dynasties which marked their mark Marrakech was founded in the year 1062 (year 454 of the Hegira), by Youssef Ibn Tachfin, the first ruler of the dynasty Almoravide.
The name comes from the Berber Marrakech "Love" which means "country" and "Akouche" which mean "god" giving the land of God or the Holy Land. Gives another etymology, from the dialect Tifinagh, the interpretation of "land routes [2]. " Soon, in Marrakech, led the Almoravids, austere and pious men, many mosques and madrassas (Koranic schools of Theology) were built, and a commercial center for the Maghreb and black Africa. Marrakech is growing rapidly and established itself as a cultural and religious influence, the walls are built to protect the city. It becomes the core, the capital of the Almoravids. The city was then fortified by the son of Youssef Ibn Tachfin, Ali Ben Youssef, by building walls for several kilometers, the city's architecture was influenced by Fez, the capital founded by Idris I, and Muslim Spain . These two cities are the cultural influence, architectural Morocco, but also the Arab / Muslim it is they who have inspired Al Andalus and who spilled the Arab world.
In 1147, the Almohad proponents of orthodox Islam seized the city walls, the last Almoravids exterminated almost all the monuments destroyed. The Almohad built numerous palaces and religious buildings, such as the famous Koutoubia mosque built on the ruins of a palace Almoravid.
To feed the park and the large gardens, an irrigation system was perfected. Marrakech, by cultural influence attracted many? Writers and artists, especially from Andalusia.
In 1269, Marrakech was conquered by the nomads at the expense of last Merinid Almohades. Occurs when the advent of the Marinids, Marrakech then fell to a certain lethargy, and its decline brought the loss of its status as capital for the benefit of his great rival, Fez.
In the early sixteenth century, Marrakech becomes the capital of the kingdom, quickly reached its peak, in particular through the Saadien Sultan, Mohammed El Mahdi. Due to the fortune amassed by the Sultans, Marrakech was embellished, the monuments in ruins then restored and sumptuous palaces built. The palace built by the Saadi, the Badi is a replica of the Alhambra, carried out with the most precious materials from Italy, Sudan, India and even China. A protocol inspired by the sumptuous Topkapi Istanbul is applied. Despite their opposition to the Turks, are attracted Saadian Ottoman civilization. A vestige of this influence lies in the name of the neighborhood Derb Dabachi, which derives the term "ogdabachi" and refers to a senior officer in the Ottoman military hierarchy. Marrakech will again lose its status as capital.
? the late seventeenth century, the Alawite dynasty succeeded the current Saadiens. The throne is successively transferred to Fez and Meknes, new imperial city.
In the early twentieth century, Marrakech knows few years of civil war.
1912, the introduction of the French protectorate in Morocco put an end to this anarchy. In 1956, the return from exile of King Mohammed V will be celebrated in Marrakech and in the rest of the country

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